Cigarette smoking, salivary/ gingival crevicular fluid cotinine and periodontal status A 10-year longitudinal study

Xia Chen, Larry Wolff, Dorothee Aeppli, Zijie Guo, Wen Min Luan, Vibeke Baelum, Ole Fejeskov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


Background, aims: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the association of salivary and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) cotinine levels with periodontal disease status in smokers and non-smokers. Methods: 147 male smokers and 30 male non-smokers were included in the current longitudinal study. The 177 individuals were part of a group of 200 subjects (89%) seen 10 years previously for a baseline survey. Oral hygiene indices, probing depth and attachment loss were recorded. Salivary and GCF cotinine levels of 58 smokers were determined by means of ELISA. Results: Results indicated that no significant difference was found in subjects who smoked, when compared to subjects who did not smoke with respect to plaque accumulation and calculus deposits. Smokers, however, had fewer gingival bleeding sites. Cigarette smoking was associated with a greater increase in probing depth and attachment loss, as well as greater tooth loss at an earlier age. There was greater tooth loss in smokers than non-smokers (p<0.001). 11 smokers became edentulous, while only 1 non-smoker lost all his teeth within 10 years. The degree of periodontal tissue breakdown was different in each age group with greater periodontal deterioration as age increased. All smokers had detectable salivary and GCF cotinine. Mean GCF cotinine was about 4 X higher than mean salivary cotinine levels. Individuals who smoked ≥20 pack years when compared to <20 pack years, had significantly higher saliva and GCF cotinine levels (p≤0.05). Conclusion: Neither salivary cotinine nor GCF cotinine was significantly correlated with probing depth, attachment loss and tooth loss (p>0.05).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)331-339
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of clinical periodontology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2001


  • Cotinine
  • Periodontal disease
  • Smoking


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