Cigarette smoking and longitudinal associations with blood pressure: The cardia study

Rachel E. Luehrs, Dong Zhang, Gary L. Pierce, David R. Jacobs, Ravi Kalhan, Kara M. Whitaker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The associations of chronic cigarette smoking with blood pressure (BP) remain mixed. It is unclear whether a lack of examination of racial differences contributed to the mixed findings in previous studies. Black smokers metabolize nicotine at a slower rate than White smokers and racial discrimination contributes to nicotine dependence and higher BP among Black smokers. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the association between cigarette smoking and longitudinal (30-year) changes in systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure (PP) in 4786 Black and White individuals from the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study using repeated-measures regression models. Neither systolic BP, nor diastolic BP differed between Black consistent smokers compared with Black never smokers, although Black consistent smokers had higher PP than Black never smokers (β=1.01 mm Hg, P=0.028). White consistent smokers had similar systolic BP, but lower diastolic BP (β=−2.27 mm Hg, P<0.001) and higher PP (β=1.59 mm Hg, P<0.001) compared with White never smokers. There were no differences in systolic BP, diastolic BP, or PP between Black or White long-term former smokers compared with never smokers (all P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the associations of cigarette smoking with alterations in BP are small, the greater PP observed in consistent smokers may contribute in part to the higher cardiovascular disease risk observed in this group because PP is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease risk after middle age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere019566
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 4 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201800005I and HHSN268201800007I), Northwestern University (HHSN268201800003I), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201800006I), and Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201800004I). Additional funding was provided by NHLBI R01 HL122477 (CARDIA Lung Study). This article has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content. Luehrs was supported by American Heart Association (19PRE34400003) and Pierce by a University of Iowa Environmental Health Sciences Research Center pilot grant from NIEHS (P30 ES005605).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Pulse pressure

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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