Cigarette smoking is often associated with dementia. This association is thought to be mediated by hypoperfusion; however, how smoking behavior relates to cerebral blood flow (CBF) remains unclear. Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort (mean age = 50; n = 522), we examined the association between smoking behavior (status, cumulative pack-years, age at smoking initiation, and years since cessation) and CBF (arterial spin labeling) in brain lobes and regions linked to dementia. We used adjusted linear regression models and tested whether associations differed between current and former-smokers. Compared to never-smokers, former-smokers had lower CBF in the parietal and occipital lobes, cuneus, precuneus, putamen, and insula; in contrast, current-smokers did not have lower CBF. The relationship between pack-years and CBF was different between current and former-smokers (p for interaction < 0.05): Among current-smokers, higher pack-years were associated with higher occipital, temporal, cuneus, putamen, insula, hippocampus, and caudate CBF; former-smokers had lower caudate CBF with increasing pack-years. Results show links between smoking and CBF at middle-age in regions implicated in cognitive and compulsive/addictive processes. Differences between current and former smoking suggest that distinct pathological and/or compensatory mechanisms may be involved depending on the timing and history of smoking exposure.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) is conducted and supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) in collaboration with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (HHSN268201300025C & HHSN2682013 00026C), Northwestern University (HHSN268201300027C), University of Minnesota (HHSN268201300028C), Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (HHSN268201300029C), and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (HHSN 268200900041C). CARDIA is also partially supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and an intra-agency agreement between NIA and NHLBI (AG0005). This manuscript has been reviewed by CARDIA for scientific content.
- Cigarette smoking
- cerebral blood flow