Gliding spectral windows illustrate the changes as a function of time in the relative prominence of signals in a given frequency range, viewed in 3D or as surface charts. As an example, the method is applied to a 2189-year series of averages of ring measurements on 11 sequoia trees published by Douglass. Analyses of the original data and after filtering reveal, among others, components with periods of about 10.5 and 21 years similar to the Schwabe and Hale solar activity cycles. An alignment of gliding spectra with a global spectrum serves to define, by minima, the ranges of variability around the anticipated Schwabe and Hale cycles. This procedure may have more general applicability when dealing with ranges of only transiently synchronized, wobbly, and perhaps sometimes free-running periodicities. Solar activity is known to affect climate and changes in climate are reflected to some extent in tree growth. The spectral structure in tree rings could serve not only to check any relations of climate with sunspots, auroras and more modern measures of solar activity, but also to check any purely mathematical extrapolations from the much shorter available actual data on solar activity. With such extrapolated series and the data analyzed herein, the task remains to align physical and physiological variables to further study the influence of natural environmental factors near and far on biota, including international battles, which cover an even longer span of 2556 years.
- (Chronobiologic) serial section
- Gliding spectra
- Solar activity
- Tree rings