Several international meetings have revealed an accumulating body of reference values for well-established about-daily and about-yearly rhythms of photic origin and evidence also for about-7-day, -27-day, -half-yearly, -10.5- and -21-yearly, and even -50-yearly rhythmicities in us as well as around us, as invisible non-photic heliogeophysical signatures possibly built into individuals and/or populations, complementing the biological year and day. In time series (biological or other) that are dense and sufficiently long, the characteristics of rhythms, chaos (deterministic and other) and trends can all be quantified as elements of structures called chronomes. Chronobiological methodology assesses uncertainties in comparisons of endpoints in all elements of chronomes, before and after: 1) changes in lifestyle, such as meal quality, quantity, timing and salting of the food; 2) preventive non-drug interventions to limit the risk of vascular disease; or 3) drug treatments for high-risk subjects as well as for those with actual vascular disease, all on a practicable, individualized and also a general population basis. A collateral hierarchy characterizes molecular to psychosocial aspects of living beings that are exposed to their socio-ecological environs and thus are synchronizable and/or otherwise manipulable by society, meals, lighting, heating, and non-photic, non-thermic environmental variations that become predictable to the extent that they appear to constitute cycles, yet adhere only to a statistical, rather than a deterministic causality. With this qualification, chronome mapping with outcomes could eventually serve an individualized optimization of lifestyle, for chronoprevention and chronotherapy as well as for inquiries into the evolution and future of life, a budding chronoastrobiology, in keeping with the original title of the conference.
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- Time structure