Chronoecological "glocal"(global and local) health-watch: Men better adapted to ambienthypoxia than women

Takashi Nakaoka, Takahiro Kawasaki, Kiyohito Okumiya, Tsering Norboo, Kuniaki Otsuka, Kozo Matsubayashi, Fabien De Meester, Douglas Wilson, R. B. Singh, Germaine G Cornelissen-Guillaume, Franz Halberg

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Background: Gender differences characterize cardiovascular adaptation to highaltitude as a halting step toward a spatially (and temporally) "glocal" assessment ofcardiovascular function. Spatially glocal differences were previously found in theincidence pattern of sudden cardiac death in different states of the USA and worldwide inTokyo vs. the Republic of Georgia and Latvia, among others, and were found to changewith time in the Czech Republic, documenting the need for glocality in examination inboth time and space. A glocal examination of records by the analysis of time series as awhole (globally) and in sections systematically varied in length (locally in time) remainsto be initiated in both the circadian and extracircadian domains at high and low altitudeson a larger scale. Human populations adjust to ambient hypoxia via changes in theexpression of hypoxia-related genes. In this study, we examine the gender differences inadaptation to high altitude among Indian and Japanese subjects.Methods: We assessed, glocally (globally, to start with in India at high altitude andlocally in Japan, in space but not yet glocally in time series), 1,858 Ladakhis (777 menand 1,081 women, aged from 13 to 92 years, average 51.4 years) and 25,211 Japanese(13,366 men and 11,845 women, aged from 16 to 98 years, average 48.0 years).We usedvalidated questionnaires and clinical examination to assess the cardiovascular, autonomicand cognitive functions, at high altitude in Ladakh, India and at low altitude in Japan,comparing men and women in 3 groups living in Ladakh at different altitudes, i.e., from2,500 to 3,000 meters (m), from 3,200 to 3,720 m, and from 3,800 to 4,590 m above sealevel. Aortic stiffness was measured by finding out the cardio-ankle vascular index(CAVI) by the measurements of BP in the right and left forearms and ankles using aVaSera instrument (Fukuda Denshi, Tokyo).Results: As compared to Japanese living at low altitude, highland people in Indiashowed higher values of aortic stiffness of the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) inboth men and women. Differences in altitude did not statistically significantly influenceBP, pulse oximetry (SpO2), CAVI, and ECG findings in Ladakhi men. By contrast,CAVI values and BP in sitting position increased with statistical significance withincreasing altitude in Ladakhi women. Incidences of first degree AV block, STdepression and abnormal Q waves in the ECG were more frequent at higher altitude inLadakhi women. The change of SpO2 and diastolic BP over the years were morepronounced in Ladakhi women than in Ladakhi men.Conclusion: Without extrapolating beyond the time and geographic site investigated,women in Ladakh, India, were found to be more sensitive to hypoxia than men whoappear to be better adapted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNew Research in Cardiovascular Health
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9781629489773
ISBN (Print)9781629489933
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014


  • Aging
  • Arterial function
  • Autonomic system
  • Epidemiology
  • Gender
  • Hypertension


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