Nicotine replacement therapy is often used to maintain smoking cessation. However, concerns exist about the safety of long-term nicotine replacement therapy use in ex-smokers and its concurrent use in smokers. In this study, we determined the effect of nicotine administration on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3- pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumors in A/J mice. Female mice were administered a single dose of NNK (10 mmol) and 0.44 mmol/mL nicotine in the drinking water. Nicotine was administered 2 weeks prior to NNK, 44 weeks after NNK, throughout the experiment, or without NNK treatment. The average weekly consumption of nicotine-containing water was 15 ± 3 mL per mouse, resulting in an estimated daily nicotine dose of 0.9 mmol (0.15 mg) per mouse. Nicotine administration alone for 46 weeks did not increase lung tumor multiplicity (0.32 ± 0.1 vs. 0.53 ± 0.1 tumors per mouse). Lung tumor multiplicity in NNK-treated mice was 18.4 ± 4.5 and was not different for mice consuming nicotine before or after NNK administration, 21.9 ± 5.3 and 20.0 ± 5.4 tumors per mouse, respectively. Lung tumor multiplicity in animals consuming nicotine both before and after NNK administration was 20.4 ± 5.4. Tumor size and progression of adenomas to carcinomas was also not affected by nicotine consumption. In addition, nicotine consumption had no effect on the level of O6-methylguanine in the lung of NNK-treated mice. These negative findings in a commonly used model ofhumanlung carcinogenesis should lead us to question the interpretation of the many in vitro studies that find that nicotine stimulates cancer cell growth.