This chapter describes basic features and pathophysiological processes rele- vant for chronic lung injury and its clinical manifestations. Acute and chronic lung injury are not distinct and separate entities, and many of the inflammatory processes, mediators, and mechanisms discussed in the con- text of acute injury in preceding chapters are also relevant for pulmonary remodeling, repair, and fibrosis. This chapter describes pathophysiological pathways contributing to lung injury and its progression to chronic patho- logy, including generalized cellular responses to stress and pulmonary inflammatory responses and defense mechanisms. Also described are med- iators and factors important in lung injury and fibroproliferation (additional discussion of mediators thought to play important roles in chronic pulmon- ary injury and fibroproliferative responses is provided in Chapter 6). In addition to covering the basic pathophysiology of chronic lung injury and fibroproliferation, this chapter also discusses related clinical disease. A variety of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases contain prominent components of chronic lung injury and fibrosis. Two representative examples of such diseases (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and silicosis) are discussed to illustrate common clinical manifestations of chronic injury, abnormal remodeling, and fibroproliferation. Therapeutic interventions relevant for chronic lung disease and injury are detailed later in this book.
|Title of host publication
|Subtitle of host publication
|Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Therapy
|Number of pages
|Published - Jan 1 2005