Chronic conditions, late mortality, and health status after childhood AML: a Childhood Cancer Survivor Study report

Lucie M. Turcotte, Jillian A. Whitton, Wendy M. Leisenring, Rebecca M. Howell, Joseph P. Neglia, Rachel Phelan, Kevin C. Oeffinger, Kirsten K. Ness, William G. Woods, E. Anders Kolb, Leslie L. Robison, Gregory T. Armstrong, Eric J. Chow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Five-year survival following childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has increased following improvements in treatment and supportive care. Long-term health outcomes are unknown. To address this, cumulative incidence of late mortality and grades 3 to 5 chronic health condition (CHC) were estimated among 5-year AML survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1999. Survivors were compared by treatment group (hematopoietic cell transplantation [HCT], chemotherapy with cranial radiation [chemo + CRT], chemotherapy only [chemo-only]), and diagnosis decade. Self-reported health status was compared across treatments, diagnosis decade, and with siblings. Among 856 survivors (median diagnosis age, 7.1 years; median age at last follow-up, 29.4 years), 20-year late mortality cumulative incidence was highest after HCT (13.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0%-17.8%; chemo + CRT, 7.6%; 95% CI, 2.2%-13.1%; chemo-only, 5.1%; 95% CI, 2.8%-7.4%). Cumulative incidence of mortality for HCT survivors diagnosed in the 1990s (8.5%; 95% CI, 4.1%-12.8%) was lower vs those diagnosed in the 1970s (38.9%; 95% CI, 16.4%-61.4%). Most survivors did not experience any grade 3 to 5 CHC after 20 years (HCT, 45.8%; chemo + CRT, 23.7%; chemo-only, 27.0%). Furthermore, a temporal reduction in CHC cumulative incidence was seen after HCT (1970s, 76.1%; 1990s, 38.3%; P =.02), mirroring reduced use of total body irradiation. Self-reported health status was good to excellent for 88.2% of survivors; however, this was lower than that for siblings (94.8%; P <.0001). Although HCT is associated with greater long-term morbidity and mortality than chemotherapy-based treatment, gaps have narrowed, and all treatment groups report favorable health status.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)90-101
Number of pages12
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 5 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The American Society of Hematology

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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