The effect of a series of puromycin analogues and aminoacyl chloramphenicol derivatives on poly(U,C) directed polyphenylalanine synthesis in an Escherichia coli cell free system was examined. A comparison between the structures and activities of the puromycin and chloramphenicol analogues was made to examine the proposal that ribosomal binding sites for both antibiotics overlap. The results suggest that the dichloroacetamido group in the chloramphenicol molecule does not correspond to the role of the aminoacyl moieties of either puromycin or aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid. These results comparing the structures and activities of puromycin and chloramphenicol analogues also seem inconsistent with a common binding site for the p substituted phenyl moieties of the two antibiotics. Previous data have indicated that both sites are mutually affected by the prior binding of either antibiotic. Although it is possible that chloramphenicol and puromycin may have overlapping bindings sites, no common structural features between the two antibiotics are supported by the present data.