The main clinical problems for dental implants are (1) formation of biofilm around the implant—a condition known as peri-implantitis and (2) inadequate bone formation around the implant—lack of osseointegration. Therefore, developing an implant to overcome these problems is of significant interest to the dental community. Chitosan has been reported to have good biocompatibility and anti-bacterial activity. An osseo-inductive recombinant elastin-like biopolymer (P-HAP), that contains a peptide derived from the protein statherin, has been reported to induce biomineralization and osteoblast differentiation. In this study, chitosan/P-HAP bi-layers were built on a titanium surface using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The difference in the water contact angle between consecutive layers, the representative peaks in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the changes in the topography between surfaces with a different number of bi-layers observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), all indicated the successful establishment of chitosan/P-HAP LbL assembly on the titanium surface. The LbL-modified surfaces showed increased biomineralization, an appropriate mouse pre-osteoblastic cell response, and significant anti-bacterial activity against Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of tissues in the oral environment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was partially supported by a 3M Foundation NonTenured Faculty Award to Conrado Aparicio. Jose Carlos Rodriguez-Cabello wishes to thank the European Commission (HEALTH-F4-2011-278557, PITN-GA-2012-317306, MSCA-ITN-2014-642687 and NMP-2014-646075), The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Spain) (MAT2013-42473-R and MAT2015-68901R), and the Junta de Castilla y Leon (VA244U13, VA313U14 and VA015U16). Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program.
- Elastin-like recombinamers