The purpose of this study was to review the clinical outcomes and cost of administration of a prophylactic antibiotic compared to G-CSF for the prevention of neutropenic morbidity associated with taxol. The study group was composed of 62 patients with ovarian cancer who received a 24-h infusion of a taxol-based regimen at doses less than or equal to 175 mg/m2 between June 1992 and April 1994. The records were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were grouped and analyzed according to the management of their myelosuppression. Group I patients (n = 29) were observed until their absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was less than 500/μl and then were placed on ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice a day until their ANC was 1000/μl. Group II patients (n = 15) received G-CSF from Day 2 until the ANC was greater than 10,000/μl beginning with their first cycle. Group III patients (n = 18) received their taxol regimen without either ciprofloxacin or G-CSF. Two hundred eighty-two taxol-based chemotherapy cycles were administered to these 62 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning disease status as measured by age, stage, performance status, dose intensity, or number of previous regimens. There were two episodes of febrile neutropenia in Group I and three episodes in Group II. Group III had 15 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The estimated cost of the different prophylactic regimens was $5215.00 for Group I versus $104,000.00 for G-CSF in Group II. Within the three groups, there were 27 patients with an episode of febrile neutropenia (n = 20) or prolonged myelosuppression (n = 7) that were followed for an additional 104 taxol cycles. Twenty-four of these patients received G-CSF prophylaxis with intermittent ciprofloxacin and three received only ciprofloxacin. There were eight more episodes of febrile neutropenia in the patients receiving G-CSF. There were no additional febrile episodes on cycles prophylaxed with ciprofloxacin. There was no septic mortality. For patients receiving a 24 h infusion of taxol at doses less than 175 mg/m2, ciprofloxacin given through the ANC nadir may be effective in preventing febrile morbidity. A prospective randomized trial is underway to evaluate this approach.