Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)-terminated oligosaccharides are important signals for M6P-receptor-mediated targeting of newly synthesized hydrolases from Golgi to lysosomes, but the precise structural requirement for the M6P ligand-receptor recognition has not been fully understood due to the difficulties in obtaining homogeneous M6P-containing glycoproteins. We describe here a chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous phosphoglycoproteins carrying natural M6P-containing N-glycans. The method includes the chemical synthesis of glycan oxazolines with varied number and location of the M6P moieties and their transfer to the GlcNAc-protein by an endoglycosynthase to provide homogeneous M6P-containing glycoproteins. Simultaneous attachment of two M6P-oligosaccahrides to a cyclic polypeptide was also accomplished to yield bivalent M6P-glycopeptides. Surface plasmon resonance binding studies reveal that a single M6P moiety located at the low α-1,3-branch of the oligomannose context is sufficient for a high-affinity binding to receptor CI-MPR, while the presence of a M6P moiety at the α-1,6-branch is dispensable. In addition, a binding study with the bivalent cyclic and linear polypeptides reveals that a close proximity of two M6P-oligosaccharide ligands is critical to achieve high affinity for the CI-MPR receptor. Taken together, the present study indicates that the location and valency of the M6P moieties and the right oligosaccharide context are all critical for high-affinity binding with the major M6P receptor. The chemoenzymatic method described here provides a new avenue for glycosylation remodeling of recombinant enzymes to enhance the uptake and delivery of enzymes to lysosomes in enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of lysosomal storage diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH grant R01 GM080374 to L.X.W.).