Chemistry of bread aroma: A review

In Hee Cho, Devin G. Peterson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

159 Scopus citations


The roles of ingredient formulation, dough fermentation, and baking conditions on bread aroma are reviewed. More than 540 volatile compounds have been reported in bread. However, only a relative small portion of the volatile compounds in bread contribute to the desirable aroma properties. The primary odorants reported to contribute to the flavor of wheat bread crust were 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, (E)-2-nonenal, 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione, methional, and (Z)-2-nonenal, whereas for bread crumb, (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, 2,3-butanedione, methional, 1-octen-3-ol, and (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal were identified. One compound, in particular, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline has been suggested to be the key odorants of the crust and is considered to be responsible for the cracker-like odor properties. These compounds are primarily generated during thermal processing but also influence by ingredient composition and fermentation conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-582
Number of pages8
JournalFood Science and Biotechnology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Aroma
  • Baking
  • Bread
  • Dough fermentation
  • Key odorant


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