Neodymium dioxide (NdO2) and samarium dioxide cation (SmO22+) are isoelectronic molecules. Here we used calculations of the spin-orbit-free wave functions to study and compare their geometries, spin states, and bonding. We used Kohn-Sham density functional theory with the B97-1 exchange-correlation functional to optimize the geometries and found that the two molecules have different ground spin states and structures. NdO2 favors a linear ONdO triplet structure, and SmO22+ favors a linear SmOO2+ quintet structure. We then used state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field (SA-CASSCF) calculations to investigate the bonding characteristics of NdO2 and SmO22+ in various geometries. We found that in NdOO, one electron is transferred from Nd to O, while in SmO22+, there is no electron transfer between Sm and O. The SA-CASSCF calculation also shows that ONdO has a stronger bonding orbital between a 4f orbital of Nd and a pz orbital of oxygen atoms. We compared three multireference methods, namely, extended multistate complete active space second-order perturbation theory (XMS-CASPT2), extended multistate pair-density functional theory (XMS-PDFT), and compressed multistate pair-density functional theory (CMS-PDFT), for calculating the spin-orbit-free energies of various isomers of both molecules. We found that although XMS-PDFT and CMS-PDFT are at the same cost level as SA-CASSCF, they give results with the same accuracy as given for the much more demanding XMS-CASPT2 calculation. Between the two multistate PDFT methods, CMS-PDFT is better at giving good degeneracies for states that should be degenerate.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Jie Bao for his assistance. We thank Albert Viggiano for informing us that he saw SmO22+ when they were making Sm+ for other reasons. This work was supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (grant FA9550-16-1-0134).
We thank Jie Bao for his assistance. We thank Albert Viggiano for informing us that he saw SmO when they were making Sm for other reasons. This work was supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (grant FA9550-16-1-0134). 2 2+ +
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