Characterization of viral load, viability and persistence of influenza a virus in air and on surfaces of swine production facilities

Victor Neira, Peter Rabinowitz, Aaron Rendahl, Blanca Paccha, Shawn G. Gibbs, Montse Torremorell

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16 Scopus citations


Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98) of oral fluid, 38% (32/84) of pen railing and 43% (35/82) of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2). Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0146616
JournalPloS one
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 12 2016


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