Characterization of the aroma of red frontenac table wines by descriptive analysis

Anna Katharine Mansfield, Zata M. Vickers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Frontenac (Vitis spp. MN 1047) is a recently introduced, cold-hardy red winegrape that is currently the most-planted grape cultivar in much of the Upper Midwest. Frontenac is typically described as having dominant notes of cherry, black currant, plum, and spice, but to date no structured evaluation of common sensory characteristics has been performed to determine whether these characteristics are perceived in a majority of red Frontenac table wines. To develop a set of descriptors for describing the aroma of these wines, descriptive analysis was performed on six commercially produced products. In an effort to identify characteristics common to the grape, wines with different production protocols were sourced from various commercial wineries in Minnesota. Thirteen sensory descriptors that characterized the wine were defined with references. Correlation analysis indicated that attributes were discrete and not redundant. All 13 attribute descriptors were useful for describing and/or distinguishing between red Frontenac table wines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)435-441
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 8 2009


  • Cold-climate winemaking
  • Cold-hardy winegrape
  • Descriptive analysis
  • Frontenac


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