Although many studies have observed genome-wide host transposon expression alteration during viral infection, the mechanisms of induction and the impact on the host remain unclear. Utilizing recently published influenza A virus (IAV) time series data and ENCODE functional genomics data, we characterized virus induced host differentially expressed transposons (virus-induced-TE) by investigating genome-wide spatial and functional relevance between the virus-induced-TEs and epigenomic markers (e.g. histone modification and chromatin remodelers). We found that a significant fraction of virus-induced-TEs are derived from host enhancer regions, where CHD4 binding and/or H3K27ac occupancy is high or H3K9me3 occupancy is low. By overlapping virus-induced-TEs to human enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), we discovered that a proportion of virus-induced-TEs are either eRNAs or part of enhancer RNAs. Upon further analysis of the eRNA targeted genes, we found that the virus-induced-TE related eRNA targets are overrepresented in differentially expressed host genes of IAV infected samples. Our results suggest that changing chromatin accessibility from repressive to permissive in the transposon docked enhancer regions to regulate host downstream gene expression is potentially one of the virus and host cell interaction mechanisms, where transposons are likely important regulatory genomic elements. Our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of virus-host interaction and may lead to novel strategies for prevention and therapeutics of IAV and other virus infectious diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Max Costa (Professor of NYU) and Dr. David Masopust (Professor of UMN) for the comments on the manuscript and insightful discussions. This work is supported by UL1 TR002494, R01 AI148669. The authors declare no financial conflicts of interest.
© 2022, The Author(s).
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural