Characterization of ground-based atmospheric pollution and meteorology sampling stations during the Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017

Austin G. Doak, Megan B. Christiansen, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Timothy H. Bertram, Gregory Carmichael, Patricia Cleary, Alan C. Czarnetzki, Angela F. Dickens, Mark Janssen, Donna Kenski, Dylan B. Millet, Gordon A. Novak, Bradley R. Pierce, Elizabeth A. Stone, Russell W. Long, Michael P. Vermeuel, Timothy J. Wagner, Lukas Valin, Charles O. Stanier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017 (LMOS 2017) in May and June 2017 enabled study of transport, emissions, and chemical evolution related to ozone air pollution in the Lake Michigan airshed. Two highly instrumented ground sampling sites were part of a wider sampling strategy of aircraft, shipborne, and ground-based mobile sampling. The Zion, Illinois site (on the coast of Lake Michigan, 67 km north of Chicago) was selected to sample higher NOx air parcels having undergone less photochemical processing. The Sheboygan, Wisconsin site (on the coast of Lake Michigan, 211 km north of Chicago) was selected due to its favorable location for the observation of photochemically aged plumes during ozone episodes involving southerly winds with lake breeze. The study encountered elevated ozone during three multiday periods. Daytime ozone episode concentrations at Zion were 60 ppb for ozone, 3.8 ppb for NOx, 1.2 ppb for nitric acid, and 8.2 μg m-3 for fine particulate matter. At Sheboygan daytime, ozone episode concentrations were 60 ppb for ozone, 2.6 ppb for NOx, and 3.0 ppb for NOy. To facilitate informed use of the LMOS 2017 data repository, we here present comprehensive site description, including airmass influences during high ozone periods of the campaign, overview of meteorological and pollutant measurements, analysis of continuous emission monitor data from nearby large point sources, and characterization of local source impacts from vehicle traffic, large point sources, and rail. Consistent with previous field campaigns and the conceptual model of ozone episodes in the area, trajectories from the southwest, south, and lake breeze trajectories (south or southeast) were overrepresented during pollution episodes. Local source impacts from vehicle traffic, large point sources, and rail were assessed and found to represent less than about 15% of typical concentrations measured. Implications for model-observation comparison and design of future field campaigns are discussed. Implications: The Lake Michigan Ozone Study 2017 (LMOS 2017) was conducted along the western shore of Lake Michigan, and involved two well-instrumented coastal ground sites (Zion, IL, and Sheboygan, WI). LMOS 2017 data are publicly available, and this paper provides detailed site characterization and measurement summary to enable informed use of repository data. Minor local source impacts were detected but were largely confined to nighttime conditions of less interest for ozone episode analysis and modeling. The role of these sites in the wider field campaign and their detailed description facilitates future campaign planning, informed data repository use, and model-observation comparison.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)866-889
Number of pages24
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Issue number7
Early online dateApr 27 2021
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant AGS‐1712909, AGS-1713001, and AGS-1712828. Patricia Cleary acknowledges funding provided by the Student Blugold Commitment Differential Tuition funds through the UW-Eau Claire Summer Research Experiences for Undergraduates program and NSF award #1400815. The authors acknowledge Nishanthi Wijekoon of Wisconsin DNR for Figure 1. The authors thank the China Section of the Air & Waste Management Association for the generous scholarship they received to cover the cost of page charges, and make the publication of this paper possible.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 A&WMA.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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