CD4+ T cells are important for resistance to infection with Salmonella typhimurium. However, the Ag specificity of this T cell response is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that a significant fraction of Salmonella-specific CD4+ T cells respond to the flagellar filament protein, FliC, and that this Ag has the capacity to protect naive mice from lethal Salmonella infection. To characterize this Ag-specific response further, we generated FliC-specific CD4+ T cell clones from mice that had resolved infection with an attenuated strain of Salmonella. These clones were found to respond to an epitope from a constant region of FliC, enabling them to cross-react with flagellar proteins expressed by a number of distinct Salmonella serovars.