The role of wildlife in the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is of increasing concern. We investigated the occurrence, richness and transmissibility potential of ARGs detected in the faeces of three mesocarnivore species: the coyote (Canis latrans), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and of stray and owned dogs in suburban Chicago, IL, USA. Rectal swabs were collected from live-captured coyotes (n = 32), raccoons (n = 31) and Virginia opossums (n = 22). Fresh faecal samples were collected from locally owned (n = 13) and stray dogs (n = 18) and from the live-captured mesocarnivores, when available. Faecal samples and rectal swabs were enriched to select for Enterobacteriaceae and pooled by mesocarnivore species and dog type (owned or stray). Pooled enriched samples were then analysed for the presence of ARGs using shotgun sequencing. The three mesocarnivore and stray dog samples had twice as many unique ARGs compared to the owned dog sample, which was partly driven by a greater richness of beta-lactamase genes (genes conferring resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins). Raccoon and stray dog samples had the most ARGs in common, suggesting possible exposure to similar environmental sources of ARGs. In addition to identifying clinically relevant ARGs (e.g. blaCMY and qnrB), some ARGs were linked to the class 1 integrase gene, intI1, which may indicate anthropogenic origin. Findings from this pilot investigation suggest that the microbial communities of suburban mesocarnivores and stray dogs can host ARGs that can confer resistance to several antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding was provided by D. Alexander from the Cook County Animal and Rabies Control, the Max McGraw Wildlife Foundation, the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, the National Science Foundation (DEB-1413925 and 1654609) and CVM Research Office UMN Ag Experiment Station General Ag Research Funds (MIN-62-098). We extend many thanks to R. Barbiers from the Anti-Cruelty Society for advice with the stray dog sampling and to technicians and graduate students in the Gehrt laboratory for field and technical assistance. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.
© 2020 Blackwell Verlag GmbH
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- antimicrobial resistance
- domestic dog
- metagenomic sequencing
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.