Almond hulls, the main by-product of almond production, are considered a valuable source of bioactive phenolic compounds. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic composition, bioavailability of the phenolic-rich extracts from almond hulls (PEAH), and their protective effect on oxidative stressed Caco-2 cells induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). The ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) analysis detected 11 phenolic compounds in the PEAH with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Oxidative Caco-2 cell damage was reduced by PEAH, especially at 5 μg/mL, through scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating the cellular endogenous antioxidant system and cell redox at a predictable status. Also, in vitro digestion influenced the phenolic compounds’ composition and antioxidant power of PEAH. These results suggested that almond hulls, rich in phenolic compounds, can meliorate the oxidative stressed Caco-2 cells and restore its impaired redox balance, and ultimately improve health benefits.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by grants from Almond Board of California , the China Scholarship Council Foundation (Grant Number 201806510024 ), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2018BLRD08 ) and University of Minnesota Center for Biorefining.
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- Almond hulls
- Antioxidant activity
- Phenolic-rich extracts
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article