Maps of the canine genome are now developing rapidly. Most of the markers on the current integrated canine radiation hybrid/genetic linkage/cytogenetic map are highly polymorphic microsatellite (type II) markers that are very useful for mapping disease loci. However, there is still an urgent need for the mapping of gene-based (type I) markers that are required for comparative mapping, as well as identifying candidate genes for disease loci that have been genetically mapped. We constructed an adult brain cDNA library as a resource to increase the number of gene-based markers on the canine genome map. Eighty-one percent of the 2700 sequenced expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented unique sequences. The canine brain ESTs were compared with sequences in public databases to identify putative canine orthologs of human genes. One hundred nine of the canine ESTs were mapped on the latest canine radiation hybrid (RH) panel to determine the location of the respective canine gene. The addition of these new gene-based markers revealed three conserved segments (CS) between human and canine genomes previously detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but not by RH mapping. In addition, five new CS between dog and human were identified that had not been detected previously by RH mapping or FISH. This work has increased the number of gene-based markers on the canine RH map by approximately 30% and indicates the benefit to be gained by increasing the gene content of the current canine comparative map.