Characteristics and Risk Factors for Electric Scooter-Related Crashes and Injury Crashes among Scooter Riders: A Two-Phase Survey Study

Disi Tian, Andrew D. Ryan, Curtis M. Craig, Kelsey Sievert, Nichole L. Morris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Electric scooters (or e-scooters) are among the most popular micromobility options that have experienced an enormous expansion in urban transportation systems across the world in recent years. Along with the increased usage of e-scooters, the increasing number of e-scooter-related injuries has also become an emerging global public health concern. However, little is known regarding the risk factors for e-scooter-related crashes and injury crashes. This study consisted of a two-phase survey questionnaire administered to a cohort of e-scooter riders (n = 210), which obtained exposure information on riders’ demographics, riding behaviors (including infrastructure selection), helmet use, and other crash-related factors. The risk ratios of riders’ self-reported involvement in an e-scooter-related crash (i.e., any crash versus no crash) and injury crash (i.e., injury crash versus non-injury crash) were estimated across exposure subcategories using the Negative Binomial regression approach. Males and frequent users of e-scooters were associated with an increased risk of e-scooter-related crashes of any type. For the e-scooter-related injury crashes, more frequently riding on bike lanes (i.e., greater than 25% of the time), either protected or unprotected, was identified as a protective factor. E-scooter-related injury crashes were more likely to occur among females, who reported riding on sidewalks and non-paved surfaces more frequently. The study may help inform public policy regarding e-scooter legislation and prioritize efforts to establish suitable road infrastructure for improved e-scooter riding safety.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10129
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study was funded by the National Science Foundation, CPS-Cyber-Physical Systems, Award Number: CMMI-2038403.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • e-scooter
  • electric scooter
  • electric scooter-related crashes and injury crashes
  • infrastructure selection
  • injury characteristics
  • risk factors


Dive into the research topics of 'Characteristics and Risk Factors for Electric Scooter-Related Crashes and Injury Crashes among Scooter Riders: A Two-Phase Survey Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this