Weight concerns have been reported by women smokers to be barriers to initial cessation and to sustained abstinence. This article examines the temporal patterns of weight concerns and self-efficacy for cessation among three groups of women smokers: non-quitters, short-term quitters, and long- term quitters. Subjects were 417 women aged 20-64 who had participated in a randomized smoking cessation intervention trial. Over the twelve-month follow-up, long-term quitters reported greater increases in weight gain, pain and worry related to weight, dieting behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining cessation in eating-related situations compared to non-quitters and short-term quitters. In multivariate analyses, increases in pain and worry about weight and in self-efficacy in eating-related situations were significantly associated with sustained abstinence. Cessation-specific weight concerns and dieting were not associated with sustained abstinence. Implications of these results for intervention design are discussed.