Transcription profiling (quantitative analysis of RNA abundance) can provide a genome-wide picture of gene expression changes that accompany organismal adaptation to a new environment. Here, we used DNA microarrays to characterize genome-wide changes in transcript abundance in three replicate lines of the bacterium E. coli grown for 2,000 generations at a stressful high temperature (41.5°C). Across these lines, 12% of genes significantly changed expression during high-temperature adaptation; the majority of these changes (55%) were less than twofold increments or decrements. Thirty-nine genes, four times the number expected by chance alone, exhibited moderately or highly replicated expression changes across lines. Expression changes within a priori defined functional categories showed an even greater level of replication than did individual genes. Expression changes in the phenotypically defined stress genes and adaptation functional categories were important in evolutionary adaptation to high temperature.