Hypersensitive cell death is known to involve dynamic remodeling of intracellular structures that uses energy released during ATP hydrolysis. However, the relationship between intracellular structural changes and ATP levels during hypersensitive cell death remains unclear. Here, to visualize ATP dynamics directly in real time in individual living plant cells, we applied a genetically encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based fluorescent ATP indicator, ATeam1.03-nD/nA, for plant cells. Intracellular ATP levels increased approximately 3 h after inoculation with the avirulent strain DC3000/avrRpm1 of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), which was accompanied by the simultaneous disappearance of transvacuolar strands and appearance of bulb-like structures within the vacuolar lumen. Approximately 5 h after bacterial inoculation, the bulb-like structures disappeared and ATP levels drastically decreased. After another 2 h, the large central vacuole was disrupted. In contrast, no apparent changes in intracellular ATP levels were observed in the leaves inoculated with the virulent strain Pst DC3000. The Pst DC3000/avrRpm1-induced hypersensitive cell death was strongly suppressed by inhibiting ATP synthesis after oligomycin A application within 4 h after bacterial inoculation. When the inhibitor was applied 7 h after bacterial inoculation, cell death was unaffected. These observations show that changes in intracellular ATP levels correlate with intracellular morphological changes during hypersensitive cell death, and that ATP is required just before vacuolar rupture in response to bacterial infection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Sumitomo Foundation [to N.H.]; the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan [Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (grant No. 23570043 to N.H.), and the Cooperative Research Program of ‘Network Joint Research Center for Materials and Devices’ (to T.N.)].
- Disease resistance
- Fluorescence bioimaging
- Hypersensitive cell death
- Plant immunity