Gersten, Jordan, and Flojo (in this series) review their research on math difficulties, with an emphasis on applying current knowledge to inform practices of early identification and intervention. On a practical level, educators are in dire need of empirically based screening and intervention tools. From a scientific perspective, it is important to recognize the need to clearly define what we seek to identify and remediate, and to acknowledge that we are currently far from achieving this goal despite recent advances in the field. Among the studies reviewed by Gersten et al., as well as other studies by several other researchers, there is much variability in how mathematics difficulties are defined and measured, and even in the terms used to refer to them. I address the degree of consensus and controversy currently characterizing the state of math learning disabilities research, with an emphasis on the usefulness of a developmental perspective in appraising this young field.