A three-dimensional CFD model of a straight grate furnace for indurating iron-oxide pellets was developed for exploring conditions of furnace operation for fluid flow, heat transfer and reactions. The model includes reactions for natural gas combustion in the gas phase and calcination and magnetite oxidation as well as drying in the pellet bed. The performance of the model was investigated with a series of pellet production rates that included adjustments to the fuel rates to achieve proper induration temperatures in the pellet bed. The model may be used to discover opportunities for process improvement.
- Iron ore