Cervical dystonia (torticollis) is a disorder of unknown etiology that is difficult to diagnose and treat. It can lead to progressive changes that can cause disability and impair quality of life. Treatment options include various medications and surgical procedures. This article discusses the types of cervical dystonia as well as pathophysiology and treatment options, focusing on the use of localized botulinum toxin injections as a treatment of choice. Patient selection and grading, history and mechanism of botulinum toxin, injection techniques, side effects and efficacy are described. The need for further research into long-term effects and use of different toxins exists.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Rheumatology and Medical Rehabilitation
|Published - Dec 1 2000
- Baclofen botullinum toxin
- Servikal dystonia