Central Venous Waveform Analysis and Cardiac Output in a Porcine Model of Endotoxemic Hypotension and Resuscitation

Zachary R. Bergman, Roy K. Kiberenge, Azmath Mohammed, Richard W. Bianco, Greg J. Beilman, Colleen M. Brophy, Kyle M. Hocking, Bret D. Alvis, Eric S. Wise

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Cardiac output (CO) is a valuable proxy for perfusion, and governs volume responsiveness during resuscitation from distributive shock. The underappreciated venous system has nuanced physiology that confers valuable hemodynamic information. In this investigation, deconvolution of the central venous waveform by the fast Fourier transformation (FFT) algorithm is performed to assess its ability to constitute a CO surrogate in a porcine model of endotoxemia-induced distributive hypotension and resuscitation. STUDY DESIGN: Ten pigs were anesthetized, catheterized, and intubated. A lipopolysaccharides infusion protocol was used to precipitate low systemic vascular resistance hypotension. Four crystalloid boluses (10 cc/kg) were then given in succession, after which heart rate, mean arterial pressure, thermodilution-derived CO, central venous pressure (CVP), and the central venous waveform were collected, the last undergoing fast Fourier transformation analysis. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency of the central venous waveform's cardiac wave (f0-CVP) was obtained. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CVP, f0-CVP, and CO were plotted over the course of the boluses to determine whether f0-CVP tracked with CO better than the vital signs, or than CVP itself. RESULTS: Distributive hypotension to a 25% mean arterial pressure decrement was achieved, with decreased systemic vascular resistance (mean 918 ± 227 [SD] dyne/s/cm-5 vs 685 ± 180 dyne/s/cm-5; p = 0.038). Full hemodynamic parameters characterizing this model were reported. Slopes of linear regression lines of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, CVP, f0-CVP, and CO were -2.8, 1.7, 1.8, 0.40, and 0.35, respectively, demonstrating that f0-CVP values closely track with CO over the 4-bolus range. CONCLUSIONS: Fast Fourier transformation analysis of the central venous waveform may allow real-time assessment of CO during resuscitation from distributive hypotension, possibly offering a venous-based approach to clinical estimation of volume responsiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)294-304
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

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Copyright © 2022 by the American College of Surgeons. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • Journal Article


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