CD44+/CD24– Cancer Stem Cells Are Associated With Higher Grade of Canine Mammary Carcinomas

K. S. Im, Y. G. Jang, J. I. Shin, N. H. Kim, H. Y. Lim, S. M. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. H. Sur

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11 Scopus citations


The CD44þ/CD24– phenotype identifies cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in canine mammary carcinoma (MC); however, the histopathological features associated with this phenotype remain to be elucidated. Here, we determined whether the CD44þ/CD24– phenotype was associated with hormonal receptor (HR; estrogen receptor [ER] and/or progesterone receptor [PR]) status and/or triple (ER, PR, and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2)–negative (TN) subtype; conventional histological evaluation was also performed. We found that, as single markers, both CD44þ and CD24þ were associated with less aggressive histological types, low grade, and a non-TN subtype; both markers were associated with HR positivity. On the other hand, a CD44þ/CD24– phenotype was associated with higher grade of carcinoma. Therefore, our results suggest that immunohistochemical phenotyping for CD44/CD24 is useful for the evaluation of tumor behavior as well as CSC-like properties in canine MCs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1041-1044
Number of pages4
JournalVeterinary pathology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2015.


  • CD24
  • CD44
  • cancer stem cell
  • canine mammary carcinoma
  • immunohistochemistry


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