Cadmium (Cd) is the most concerning soil pollutant, and a threat to human health, especially in China. The in-situ immobilization of Cadmium by amendments is one of the most widely adopted methods to remedy soil contamination. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of organo-chemical amendments on soil Cd bioavailability and nitrogen cycling microbes under continuous planting of rice (Oryza sativa) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.). The experiment was carried out using four amendments, Lime, Zeolite, Superphosphate, and Biochar, at two different ratios; M1: at the ratio of 47:47:5:1, and M2 at the ratio of 71:23:5:1, respectively. Moreover, both M1 and M2 were enriched at four levels (T1: 0.5%; T2: 1%; T3: 2%; T4: 4%). Results showed that compared with CK (Cd enriched soils), the yield of rice under treatments of M1T1 and M2T1 increased by 8.93% and 8.36%, respectively. While the biomass (fresh weight) of pak choi under M1 and M2 amendments increased by 2.52–2.98 times and 0.76–2.89 times respectively, under enrichment treatments T1, T2, and T3. The total Cd concentrations in rice grains treated with M1T3 and M2T3 decreased by 89.25% and 93.16%, respectively, compared with CK. On the other hand, the total Cd concentrations in pak choi under M1T3 and M2T2 decreased by 92.86% and 90.23%, respectively. The results showed that soil pH was the main factor affecting Cd bioavailability in rice and pak choi. The Variance partitioning analysis (VPA) of rice and pak choi showed that soil pH was the most significant contributing factor. In the rice season, the contribution of soil pH (P) on Cd bioavailability was 10.14% (P = 0.102), and in the pak choi season, the contribution of soil pH was 8.38% (P = 0.133). Furthermore, the abundance of ammonia oxidation and denitrifying microorganisms had significantly correlation with soil pH and exchange Cd. In rice season, when the enrichment level of amendments increased from 0.5% (T1) to 2% (T3), the gene abundance of AOA, AOB, nirK, nirS and nosZ (І) tended to decrease. While in pak choi season, when the enrichment level increased at the level of 0.5% (T1), 1% (T2), and 2% (T3), the gene abundance of AOB, nirS, and nosZ (І) increased. Additionally, the gene abundance of AOA and nirK showed a reduction in the pak choi season contrasting to rice. And the mixed amendment M2 performed better at reducing Cd uptake than M1, which may have correlation with the ratio of lime and zeolite in them. Finally, we conclude that between these two amendments, when applied at a moderate level M2 type performed better than M1 in reducing Cd uptake, and also showed positive effects on both gene abundance and increase soil pH. This study has shown that a mixture of different organic-chemical amendments can improve crop yield and reduced heavy metal uptake by up to 93%. Specific mixture ratios also improve the structure of soil microbial communities.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Key Research and Development Program of China ( 2016YFD0801103 ), National Natural Science Foundation of China ( 41877044 ), Science and Technology Bureau project of Hangzhou ( 179464 ).
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- Heavy metals immobilization
- Mixed amendments
- Nitrogen cycling genes and Cd interaction
- Soil Cd immobilization
- Soil pH
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article