CCR5 and CCL5 gene expression in colorectal cancer: Comprehensive profiling and clinical value

Francesca Battaglin, Yasmine Baca, Joshua Millstein, Yan Yang, Joanne Xiu, Hiroyuki Arai, Jingyuan Wang, Fang Shu Ou, Federico Innocenti, Shannon M. Mumenthaler, Priya Jayachandran, Natsuko Kawanishi, Annika Lenz, Shivani Soni, Sandra Algaze, Wu Zhang, Taline Khoukaz, Evanthia Roussos Torres, Andreas Seeber, Jim P. AbrahamEmil Lou, Philip A. Philip, Benjamin A. Weinberg, Anthony F. Shields, Richard M. Goldberg, John L. Marshall, Alan P. Venook, W. Michael Korn, Heinz Josef Lenz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background The C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)/C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) axis plays a major role in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to characterize the molecular features associated with CCR5/CCL5 expression in CRC and to determine whether CCR5/CCL5 levels could impact treatment outcomes. Methods 7604 CRCs tested with NextGen Sequencing on DNA and RNA were analyzed. Molecular features were evaluated according to CCR5 and CCL5 tumor gene expression quartiles. The impact on treatment outcomes was assessed in two cohorts, including 6341 real-world patients and 429 patients from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB)/SWOG 80405 trial. Results CCR5/CCL5 expression was higher in right-sided versus left-sided tumors, and positively associated with consensus molecular subtypes 1 and 4. Higher CCR5/CCL5 expression was associated with higher tumor mutational burden, deficiency in mismatch repair and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) levels. Additionally, high CCR5/CCL5 were associated with higher immune cell infiltration in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of MMR proficient tumors. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed upregulation of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 cancer immunotherapy pathway, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) signaling, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) signaling in cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas several inflammation-related pathways were downregulated. Low CCR5/CCL5 expression was associated with increased benefit from cetuximab-FOLFOX treatment in the CALGB/SWOG 80405 trial, where significant treatment interaction was observed with biologic agents and chemotherapy backbone. Conclusions Our data show a strong association between CCR5/CCL5 gene expression and distinct molecular features, gene expression profiles, TME cell infiltration, and treatment benefit in CRC. Targeting the CCR5/CCL5 axis may have clinical applications in selected CRC subgroups and may play a key role in developing and deploying strategies to modulate the immune TME for CRC treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere007939
JournalJournal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 11 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Author(s). Published by BMJ.


  • Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunotherapy
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Tumor Biomarkers

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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