Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are small peptides able to transverse plasma membranes, able to carry proteins, nucleic acid, and viral particles into cells. PTDs can be broadly classified into three types; cationic, hydrophobic, and cell-type specific. The cationic PTDs, comprised of arginines, lysines, and ornithines, and hydrophobic PTDs can efficiently transduce a variety of cell types in culture and in vivo. The tissue-specific transduction domains, identified by screening of peptide display phage libraries for peptides able to confer internalization, have more restricted transduction properties. Here we provide a review of PTDs, focusing on methods for identifying and characterizing both cationic and tissue-specific transduction peptides. In particular, we describe the use of screening peptide phage display libraries to identify tissue-specific transduction peptides.