Case-control study of disease determinants for non-typhoidal Salmonella infections among Michigan children

Muhammad Younus, Melinda J. Wilkins, Herbert D. Davies, Mohammad H. Rahbar, Julie Funk, Chau Nguyen, Azfar E.A. Siddiqi, Seongbeom Cho, Mahdi Saeed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background. Infections with Salmonella serotypes continue to be a significant global public health problem. In addition to contaminated foods, several other sources contribute to infections with Salmonella serotypes. We have assessed the role of socioeconomic factors, exposure to food, and environmental sources in the etiology of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Michigan children. Findings. A case-control study among Michigan children aged 10 years was conducted. A total of 123 cases of children with laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infections and 139 control children, who had not experienced symptoms of gastrointestinal illness during the month prior to the interviews, were enrolled. The cases and controls were matched on age-category (<1 year, 2-<6 years and 6-10 years). Data on socioeconomic status, food intake, and environmental exposures, were collected on the queried case and control subjects. After adjusting for race and household-income the final regression multivariable model revealed that Salmonella infections were significantly associated with attendance of a daycare center (adjusted matched odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI: 1.51 - 16.58), contact with cats (MOR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.14 - 5.88), and contact with reptiles (MOR = 7.90, 95% CI: 1.52 - 41.01), during the 3 days prior to the onset of child's illness. Conclusions. Study results suggest that exposure to environmental sources may play an important role in sporadic infections with Salmonella serotypes in children. Additional efforts are needed to educate parents and caretakers about the risk of Salmonella transmission to children from these sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105
JournalBMC Research Notes
StatePublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported in part by the NIH-Contract No. N01-AI-30058. (Microbiology Research Unit, MSU), while supplemental funds were provided by the Office of the Research Associate Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University. Additionally, M. Younus received a Food, Nutrition and Chronic Disease fellowship from the College of Human Medicine, MSU to conduct this study. We sincerely thank our participants for their time and contribution. We thank Nicole Crisp, Diane Sinawi, Symone Coleman, Laya Keyvan, Amy Steffey, and Chiko Obi (members of Saeed's Lab at National Food Safety and Toxicology, MSU) for their efforts in data collection and managing study logistics at MSU, and Paula Jager and Nazneen Syed (Administrative Assistants, Communicable Disease Division, MDCH) for providing study-related logistical support.


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