Background: Addiction susceptibility and treatment responsiveness are greatly influenced by genetic factors. Sequence variation in genes involved in the mechanisms of drug action have the potential to influence addiction risk and treatment outcome. The opioid receptor system is involved in mediating the rewarding effects of cocaine and opioids. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) has traditionally been considered the primary target for opioid addiction. The MOR, however, interacts with and is regulated by many known MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs), including the δ-opioid receptor (DOR). Methods: The present study evaluated the contribution of OPRD1, the gene encoding the DOR, to the risk of addiction to opioids and cocaine. The association of OPRD1 polymorphisms with both opioid addiction (OA) and cocaine addiction (CA) was analyzed in African American (OA n= 336, CA n= 503) and European American (OA n= 1007, CA n= 336) populations. Results: The primary finding of this study is an association of rs678849 with cocaine addiction in African Americans (allelic p=0.0086). For replication purposes, this SNP was analyzed in a larger independent population of cocaine addicted African Americans and controls and the association was confirmed (allelic p=4.53×10-5; n=993). By performing a meta-analysis on the expanded populations, the statistical evidence for an association was substantially increased (allelic p=8.5×10-7) (p-values non-FDR corrected). Conclusion: The present study suggests that polymorphisms in OPRD1 are relevant for cocaine addiction in the African American population and provides additional support for a broad role for OPRD1 variants in drug dependence.
- Association study
- Delta-opioid receptor