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We demonstrate carrier-gas assisted vapor deposition (CGAVD) as a promising synthesis technique for high-quality metal halide perovskite thin films. Wide tunability of film microstructure and morphology are accesible with CGAVD via the combination of several independently controllable experimental variables. Here, we examine in detail the material transport mechanisms in CGAVD and develop analytical expressions for deposition rates for the halide perovskite precursors MABr, MAI, SnBr2, and SnI2 as a function of experimentally tunable temperatures, pressures, and flow rates. The method is then applied to systematically control the growth of MASnBr3 thin films via co-deposition across a range of stoichiometries and morphologies. In varying source material temperature, carrier gas flow rate, dilution gas flow rate, substrate temperature, and chamber pressure, corresponding changes are realized in the degree of crystallinity, grain orientation, and average grain size (from ∼0.001 to >0.7 m2). Thin films of MASnI3 and MASnBr3 deposited using CGAVD show resistivities of 0.6 Ω cm and 7 × 104 Ω cm, respectively, broadly consistent with previous reports.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through an iSuperseed grant to the University of Minnesota MRSEC (DMR-1420013) and a grant from the University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment. The authors also acknowledge support from anonymous donors to ESA, Ronald A. and Janet A. Christenson, the 3M Science and Technology Fellowship, and the UMII MnDRIVE Graduate Assistantship. The authors thank John Suddard-Bangsund for helpful discussions. Parts of this work were carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program.
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
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