1. The biological effects of carnosine, a natural hydrophilic neuropeptide, on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathological generation are reviewed. 2. We describe direct antioxidant action observed in the in vitro experiments. 3. Carnosine was found to effect metabolism indirectly. These effects are reflected in ROS turnover regulation and lipid peroxidation (LPO) processes. 4. During brain ischemia carnosine acts as a neuroprotector, contributing to better cerebral blood flow restoration, electroencephalography (EEG) normalization, decreased lactate accumulation, and enyzmatic protection against ROS. 5. The data presented demonstrate that carnosine is a specific regulator of essential metabolic pathways in neurons supporting brain homeostasis under unfavorable conditions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is the result of close collaboration between four laboratories: Institute of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia; International Biotechnological Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia; Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia; and MR Centre, Derer Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia. The authors thank Academician N. V. Vereshagin, Head of the Institute of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia, and Professor V. Mezesova, Head of Department of Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia, for support and interest in these experiments. The authors also wish to thank Dr. Y. Fujita and Professor Y. Nagata, organizers of the 7th International Symposium, ‘‘New Frontiers in the Biochemistry and Biophysics on Diagnosis and Treatment of Stroke, Neurotrauma, and Other Neurological Diseases,’’ held June 27–July 1, 1995, in Kurashiki, Japan, for their invitation and assistance in this symposium. This work was supported partially by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research, Grant 95-04-11969 and partially by the Slovak Ministry for Education, VTP Grant 95/5195/018 and VEGA Grant 1/4176/97.
- Carnosine- related compounds
- Reactive oxygen species