Cardiovascular toxicities of immunosuppressive agents

Leslie W. Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review

337 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality following solid organ transplantation. Many of the current immunosuppressive drugs are associated with an increase of one or more risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. This review compares the mechanism by which individual immunosuppressive agents may impact on these risk factors and the differential contribution of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, azathioprine, and Rapamycin to these individual risk factors. Attention to the potential cardiovascular toxicities of individual immunosuppressive agents may help design strategies for maintenance of immunosuppression tailored to individual patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)807-818
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2002


  • Cardiovascular toxicity
  • Immunosuppressants
  • Organ transplantation


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