Cardiovascular risk factor and disease measures from the population assessment of tobacco and health (Path) study

Martin C. Mahoney, Cheryl Rivard, Hoda T. Hammad, Carlos Blanco, James Sargent, Heather L. Kimmel, Baoguang Wang, Michael J. Halenar, Jueichuan Connie Kang, Nicolette Borek, K. Michael Cummings, Kristin Lauten, Maciej L. Goniewicz, Dorothy Hatsukami, Eva Sharma, Kristie Taylor, Andrew Hyland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Cardiovascular disease is a key health condition associated with tobacco use; however, clinical measures are not typically possible in population-based studies. In this paper, we assess the reliability and validity of self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and diseases in a large nationally representative study of tobacco use and health outcomes. Methods: This paper analyzes self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease among adults age 40 years and older based on U.S. nationally representative data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (self-reported high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and family history of premature heart disease, BMI ≥ 35, and tobacco use) and cardiovascular disease (self-reported heart attack, stroke and/or congestive heart failure (CHF)) were considered along with ratings of physical functioning, fatigue, and general health. Results: Selfreported cardiovascular disease was found to be associated with functional health measures (walking up a flight of stairs) and general ratings of health. Prospective analyses found strong correlations between sequential data collection waves for history of hypertension, elevated cholesterol and CHF, while more modest correlations were noted for stroke and heart attack. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease and hypertension was comparable to those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Conclusions: These analyses suggest reliability and concurrent validity regarding self-reported cardiovascular risk factors and disease assessed in the PATH Study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7692
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), is partnering with the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) to conduct the PATH Study under a contract with Westat. The PATH Study is an ongoing, nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of adults and youth in the United States (U.S.). The study uses audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) available in English and Spanish to collect self-reported information on tobacco-use patterns and associated health behaviors.

Funding Information:
Funding: This manuscript is supported with Federal funds from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, and the Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, under contract to Westat (Contract Nos. HHSN271201100027C and HHSN271201600001C).

Funding Information:
Conflicts of Interest: K. Michael Cummings provides expert testimony on the health effects of smoking and tobacco industry tactics in lawsuits filed against the tobacco industry. He has also received payment as a consultant to Pfizer, Inc., for services on an external advisory panel to assess ways to improve smoking cessation delivery in health care settings. Maciej Goniewicz has received a research grant from Pfizer and served as a member of a scientific advisory board to Johnson & Johnson. Martin C. Mahoney has provided expert testimony on the health effects of smoking in lawsuits filed against the tobacco industry. He has also received research support from Pfizer, Inc., for an on-going clinical trial of smoking cessation, and has previously served on external advisory panels sponsored by Pfizer to promote smoking cessation in clinical settings.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Cardiovascular outcomes
  • Health behavior
  • Survey methods
  • Validity


Dive into the research topics of 'Cardiovascular risk factor and disease measures from the population assessment of tobacco and health (Path) study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this