Almost 80% of the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, LMICs do not have well-established, low-technology ways to quantify and communicate CVD risk at population or individual levels. We examined predicted heart/vascular age (PHA) in six LMICs and the United States. Data were from CVD-free adults in World Health Organization Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (n = 29094) and US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (n = 6726). PHA was calculated using the non-laboratory Framingham CVD risk equation. High excess PHA (HEPHA) was defined as the differences between PHA and chronological age >5 years. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with HEPHA. Age-standardized prevalence of HEPHA was higher in Russia 52%; China 56%; Mexico 59%; and South Africa 65% compared to the US 45%, Ghana 36%; and India 38%. In LMICs, higher income, being divorced/widowed, alcohol intake and abdominal obesity had higher odds of HEPHA; higher education, fruit intake and physical activity had lower odds of HEPHA. The use of PHA may offer a useful avenue to communicate CVD risk. Interventions tailored at socioeconomic and cultural factors that influence CVD risk factors may be necessary to prevent CVD in LMICs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) training grant T32HL007779 (Dr. Appiah). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
© 2017 The Author(s).