Cardiotoxin induced injury and skeletal muscle regeneration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Skeletal muscles have a tremendous capacity for repair and regeneration in response to injury. This capacity for regeneration is largely due to a myogenic stem cell population, termed satellite cells, which are resident in adult skeletal muscles. In order to decipher the mechanisms that govern myogenic stem cell quiescence, activation, differentiation, and self-renewal, a reproducible injury model is required. Therefore, we have utilized the delivery of the myonecrotic agent, cardiotoxin, to examine the molecular mechanisms of myogenic stem cells in response to injury. Here, we describe our experience using cardiotoxin as a potent myonecrotic agent to study skeletal muscle regeneration. We provide a detailed protocol to examine skeletal muscle injury and regeneration using morphological analyses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)61-71
Number of pages11
JournalMethods in Molecular Biology
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (U01 HL100407 and 1R01 HL122576) and the Department of Defense (11763537). GAG is a research fellow funded by the Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation. The authors acknowledge Cynthia Dekay and Stefan Kren for their assistance with the fi gures.

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016.


  • Cardiotoxin
  • Skeletal muscle regeneration


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