Background: Serious cardiac valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy occur in most untreated older children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Although it is assumed that early intervention prevents these processes, evaluation of cardiac findings in these infants has not yet been reported. Methods: We reviewed echocardiograms of 13 untreated infants < 1 year of age with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I who had undergone evaluation for hematopoietic cell transplantation. We recorded left ventricular chamber dimensions, septal and posterior wall thicknesses, ventricular function, and aortic sinus diameters. We evaluated mitral and aortic valves for increased thickness, regurgitation, and stenosis. Results: Average age (7M, 6F) was 221 (range 25–347) days. Left ventricular chamber dimension was ≥2 SD of normal in 3/13; wall thicknesses were ≥2 SD of normal in 2/13 infants. Systolic function was normal. Mitral valves were thickened in all infants; mitral regurgitation was present in 9/13, but significant in only three infants. Aortic valves were thickened in 10/13, but no infant had significant aortic regurgitation. Neither mitral nor aortic stenosis occurred. Aortic roots were dilated to ≥2 SD of normal in 5/13. Conclusions: Characteristic cardiac features of severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I can be seen in infancy. Mitral and aortic valve thickening are nearly universally present, even in the youngest infants. In 20–30 % of infants, other abnormalities such as left ventricular dilation, increased wall thickness, and mild mitral/aortic regurgitation may occur. Aortic root dilation is a frequent finding. Early intervention with enzyme replacement therapy may minimize the incidence and severity of cardiac findings in these infants. Summary: Serious cardiac valve disease and left ventricular hypertrophy occur in most untreated older children with severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Although it is assumed that early intervention prevents these processes, evaluation of cardiac findings in these infants has not yet been reported. In our study of 13 infants with severe untreated MPS I < 1 year of age, mitral and aortic valve thickening was nearly universally present and aortic root dilation was frequent. Despite this, we found a lower incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and both a lower incidence and milder expression of mitral and aortic valve dysfunction than previously reported in older children. These findings suggest that earlier intervention, including neonatal screening, may be of benefit to children with severe MPS I.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||JIMD Reports|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - 2013|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Braunlin is a consultant on a research study of MPS IV for Biomarin. Dr. Orchard receives research funding from Genzyme.
© 2012, SSIEM and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- Aortic valve
- Cardiac valve
- Enzyme replacement therapy
- Mitral regurgitation
- Mitral valve