Background--Many patients with heart failure continue cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) after continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implant. We report the first multicenter study to assess the impact of CRT on clinical outcomes in CF-LVAD patients. Methods and Results--Analysis was performed on 488 patients (58±13 years, 81% male) with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) (n=223) or CRT-D (n=265) who underwent CF-LVAD implantation at 5 centers from 2007 to 2015. Effects of CRT on mortality, hospitalizations, and ventricular arrhythmia incidence were compared against CF-LVAD patients with an ICD alone. Baseline differences were noted between the 2 groups in age (60±12 versus 55±14, P < 0.001) and QRS duration (159±29 versus 126±34, P=0.001). Median biventricular pacing in the CRT group was 96%. During a median follow-up of 478 days, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no difference in survival between groups (log rank P=0.28). Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated no survival benefit with type of device (ICD versus CRT-D; P=0.16), whereas use of amiodarone was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.8, P=0.01). No differences were noted between CRT and ICD groups in all-cause (P=0.06) and heart failure (P=0.9) hospitalizations, ventricular arrhythmia incidence (43% versus 39%, P=0.3), or ICD shocks (35% versus 29%, P=0.2). During follow-up, 69 (26%) patients underwent pulse generator replacement in the CRT-D group compared with 36 (15.5%) in the ICD group (P=0.003). Conclusions--In this large, multicenter CF-LVAD cohort, continued CRT was not associated with improved survival, hospitalizations, incidence of ventricular arrhythmia and ICD therapies, and was related to a significantly higher number of pulse generator changes.
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy
- Heart failure
- Implanted cardioverter defibrillator
- Left ventricular assist device
- Ventricular arrhythmia