Cardiac development

Brad J. Martinsen, Jamie L Lohr

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


The first heart field (FHF), second heart field (SHF), cardiac neural crest (CNC), and proepicardial organ (PEO) are the four major embryonic regions involved in vertebrate heart development. They each make an important contribution to overall cardiac development with complex developmental timing and regulation. This chapter describes how these regions interact to form the final structure of the heart in relationship to the developmental timeline of human embryology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Cardiac Anatomy, Physiology, and Devices, Third Edition
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783319194646
ISBN (Print)9783319194639
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.


  • Cardiac development
  • Cardiac neural crest
  • First heart field
  • Human heart embryology
  • Proepicardial organ
  • Second heart field


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