Carbon dosing increases nitrate removal rates in denitrifying bioreactors at low-temperature high-flow conditions

Marta B. Roser, Gary W. Feyereisen, Kurt A. Spokas, David J. Mulla, Jeffrey S. Strock, Jessica Gutknecht

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nitrogen losses from croplands contribute to impairment of water bodies. This laboratory experiment evaluated various C sources for use in a denitrifying bioreactor, a conservation practice designed to reduce N losses. The nitrate removal efficiency of candidate treatments (corn cobs [CC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir [CC+MC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir and modified macadamia shell biochar [CC+MC+MBC], wood chips [WC], wood chips with hardwood biochar [WC+BC], and wood chips with continuous sodium acetate addition [WC+A]) were tested with up-flow direction. Effluent was sampled after a repeated weekly flow regime with hydraulic residence times of 1.5, 8, 12, and 24 h. Column temperatures were 15°C for 14 wk (warm), 5°C for 13 wk (cold), and again 15°C for 7 wk (rewarm). Cumulative nitrate N load reduction was greatest for WC+A (80, 80, and 97% during the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively). Corn cob treatments (CC, CC+MC, and CC+MC+MBC) had the second greatest cumulative load reductions for all three temperature experiments, and WC and WC+BC had the lowest performance under these conditions. The nitrate removal rate was optimum at the 1.5-h hydraulic residence time for the WC+A treatment: 43, 30, and 121 g N m-3 d-1 for the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively. Furthermore, acetate addition greatly improved wood chip performance and could be used to enhance nitrate N removal under the cold and high-flow-rate conditions of springtime drainage for the north-central United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)856-864
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Volume47
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Bioreactors
bioreactor
Nitrates
Wood
nitrate
maize
Carbon
carbon
Temperature
coir
residence time
acetate
Hydraulics
removal
rate
hydraulics
Hardwoods
Drainage
Effluents
Conservation

Cite this

Carbon dosing increases nitrate removal rates in denitrifying bioreactors at low-temperature high-flow conditions. / Roser, Marta B.; Feyereisen, Gary W.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Mulla, David J.; Strock, Jeffrey S.; Gutknecht, Jessica.

In: Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 47, No. 4, 01.07.2018, p. 856-864.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0d9b9990307746f1afaac8927cb0c7ff,
title = "Carbon dosing increases nitrate removal rates in denitrifying bioreactors at low-temperature high-flow conditions",
abstract = "Nitrogen losses from croplands contribute to impairment of water bodies. This laboratory experiment evaluated various C sources for use in a denitrifying bioreactor, a conservation practice designed to reduce N losses. The nitrate removal efficiency of candidate treatments (corn cobs [CC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir [CC+MC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir and modified macadamia shell biochar [CC+MC+MBC], wood chips [WC], wood chips with hardwood biochar [WC+BC], and wood chips with continuous sodium acetate addition [WC+A]) were tested with up-flow direction. Effluent was sampled after a repeated weekly flow regime with hydraulic residence times of 1.5, 8, 12, and 24 h. Column temperatures were 15°C for 14 wk (warm), 5°C for 13 wk (cold), and again 15°C for 7 wk (rewarm). Cumulative nitrate N load reduction was greatest for WC+A (80, 80, and 97{\%} during the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively). Corn cob treatments (CC, CC+MC, and CC+MC+MBC) had the second greatest cumulative load reductions for all three temperature experiments, and WC and WC+BC had the lowest performance under these conditions. The nitrate removal rate was optimum at the 1.5-h hydraulic residence time for the WC+A treatment: 43, 30, and 121 g N m-3 d-1 for the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively. Furthermore, acetate addition greatly improved wood chip performance and could be used to enhance nitrate N removal under the cold and high-flow-rate conditions of springtime drainage for the north-central United States.",
author = "Roser, {Marta B.} and Feyereisen, {Gary W.} and Spokas, {Kurt A.} and Mulla, {David J.} and Strock, {Jeffrey S.} and Jessica Gutknecht",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2134/jeq2018.02.0082",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "47",
pages = "856--864",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Quality",
issn = "0047-2425",
publisher = "ASA/CSSA/SSSA",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbon dosing increases nitrate removal rates in denitrifying bioreactors at low-temperature high-flow conditions

AU - Roser, Marta B.

AU - Feyereisen, Gary W.

AU - Spokas, Kurt A.

AU - Mulla, David J.

AU - Strock, Jeffrey S.

AU - Gutknecht, Jessica

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Nitrogen losses from croplands contribute to impairment of water bodies. This laboratory experiment evaluated various C sources for use in a denitrifying bioreactor, a conservation practice designed to reduce N losses. The nitrate removal efficiency of candidate treatments (corn cobs [CC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir [CC+MC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir and modified macadamia shell biochar [CC+MC+MBC], wood chips [WC], wood chips with hardwood biochar [WC+BC], and wood chips with continuous sodium acetate addition [WC+A]) were tested with up-flow direction. Effluent was sampled after a repeated weekly flow regime with hydraulic residence times of 1.5, 8, 12, and 24 h. Column temperatures were 15°C for 14 wk (warm), 5°C for 13 wk (cold), and again 15°C for 7 wk (rewarm). Cumulative nitrate N load reduction was greatest for WC+A (80, 80, and 97% during the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively). Corn cob treatments (CC, CC+MC, and CC+MC+MBC) had the second greatest cumulative load reductions for all three temperature experiments, and WC and WC+BC had the lowest performance under these conditions. The nitrate removal rate was optimum at the 1.5-h hydraulic residence time for the WC+A treatment: 43, 30, and 121 g N m-3 d-1 for the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively. Furthermore, acetate addition greatly improved wood chip performance and could be used to enhance nitrate N removal under the cold and high-flow-rate conditions of springtime drainage for the north-central United States.

AB - Nitrogen losses from croplands contribute to impairment of water bodies. This laboratory experiment evaluated various C sources for use in a denitrifying bioreactor, a conservation practice designed to reduce N losses. The nitrate removal efficiency of candidate treatments (corn cobs [CC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir [CC+MC], corn cobs with modified coconut coir and modified macadamia shell biochar [CC+MC+MBC], wood chips [WC], wood chips with hardwood biochar [WC+BC], and wood chips with continuous sodium acetate addition [WC+A]) were tested with up-flow direction. Effluent was sampled after a repeated weekly flow regime with hydraulic residence times of 1.5, 8, 12, and 24 h. Column temperatures were 15°C for 14 wk (warm), 5°C for 13 wk (cold), and again 15°C for 7 wk (rewarm). Cumulative nitrate N load reduction was greatest for WC+A (80, 80, and 97% during the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively). Corn cob treatments (CC, CC+MC, and CC+MC+MBC) had the second greatest cumulative load reductions for all three temperature experiments, and WC and WC+BC had the lowest performance under these conditions. The nitrate removal rate was optimum at the 1.5-h hydraulic residence time for the WC+A treatment: 43, 30, and 121 g N m-3 d-1 for the warm, cold, and rewarm runs, respectively. Furthermore, acetate addition greatly improved wood chip performance and could be used to enhance nitrate N removal under the cold and high-flow-rate conditions of springtime drainage for the north-central United States.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049486036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85049486036&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2134/jeq2018.02.0082

DO - 10.2134/jeq2018.02.0082

M3 - Article

C2 - 30025038

AN - SCOPUS:85049486036

VL - 47

SP - 856

EP - 864

JO - Journal of Environmental Quality

JF - Journal of Environmental Quality

SN - 0047-2425

IS - 4

ER -