Carbohydrate fed state alters the metabolomic response to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in liver

Charles E. Determan, Elizabeth R. Lusczek, Nancy E. Witowski, Dan Lexcen, Kristine E. Mulier, Greg J. Beilman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Hemorrhagic shock with injury results in alterations of the metabolic state of an organism, which contribute to organ dysfunction and death. Previous investigations have explored the effects of carbohydrate prefeed in murine models but few in clinically relevant large animal models. We performed carbohydrate prefeed in pigs undergoing simulated polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation to determine if carbohydrate prefeeding if the metabolic response to shock is dependent on fed state. Sixty-four Yorkshire pigs were divided into two experimental groups: fasted (32) and prefed (32). Experimental animals were subjected to a standardized hemorrhagic shock protocol, including pulmonary contusion and liver crush injury. To determine molecular alterations in response to trauma as a result of prefeeding, liver biopsies were obtained at set timepoints throughout the procedure. Fifty-one metabolites were profiled for each sample via proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Partial-Least Squared Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was used to examine clustering of the data with respect to fed state. Cross-validated models separated the fed from fasted animals. Metabolites contributing to the separation have known relationships to alternate carbon energy sources, amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress response, and membrane maintenance. In conclusion, metabolomic techniques allowed identification of an alternate response to shock and resuscitation, dependent upon fed state, through the use of metabolomics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)950-957
Number of pages8
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments The study was supported by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-09-1-0323) and the University of Minnesota.


  • Critical care
  • Glucose
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Metabolism
  • Metabolomics
  • Physiology
  • Porcine
  • Pre-condition


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