Understanding the anti-carbohydrate antibody response toward epitopes expressed on porcine cells, tissues, and organs is critical to advancing xenotransplantation toward clinical application. In this study, we determined IgM and IgG antibody specificities and relative concentrations in five cynomolgus monkeys at baseline and at intervals following intraportal xenotransplantation of adult porcine islets. This study utilized a carbohydrate antigen microarray that comprised more than 400 glycoconjugates, including historically reported α-Gal and non-α-Gal carbohydrate antigens with various modifications. The elicited anti-carbohydrate antibody responses were predominantly IgM compared to IgG in 4 out of 5 monkeys. Patterns of elicited antibody responses greater than 1.5 difference (log2 base units; 2.8-fold on a linear scale) from pre-serum to post-serum sampling specific for carbohydrate antigens were heterogeneous and recipient-specific. Increases in the elicited antibody response to α- Gal, Sda, GM2 antigens, or Lexis X antigen were found in individual monkeys. The novel carbohydrate structures Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1 and N-linked glycans with Manα1-6 (GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-3)Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ structure were common targets of elicited IgM antibodies. These results provide important insights into the carbohydrate epitopes that elicit antibodies following pig-to-monkey islet xenotransplantation and reveal possible targets for gene editing.
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PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't