Capillary HPLC-accurate mass MS/MS quantitation of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybut- 1-yl)-guanine adducts of 1,3-butadiene in human leukocyte DNA

Dewakar Sangaraju, Peter Villalta, Melissa Goggin, Maria O. Agunsoye, Colin Campbell, Natalia Tretyakova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a high volume industrial chemical commonly used in polymer and rubber production. It is also present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and urban air, leading to widespread exposure of human populations. Upon entering the body, BD is metabolized to electrophilic epoxides, 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB), diepoxybutane (DEB), and 3,4-epoxy-1,2-diol (EBD), which can alkylate DNA nucleobases. The most abundant BD epoxide, EBD, modifies the N7-guanine positions in DNA to form N7-(2, 3, 4-trihydroxybut-1-yl) guanine (N7-THBG) adducts, which can be useful as biomarkers of BD exposure and metabolic activation to DNA-reactive epoxides. In the present work, a capillary HPLC-high resolution ESI+-MS/MS (HPLC-ESI+-HRMS/MS) methodology was developed for accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantification of N7-THBG in cell culture and in human white blood cells. In our approach, DNA is subjected to neutral thermal hydrolysis to release N7-guanine adducts from the DNA backbone, followed by ultrafiltration, solid-phase extraction, and isotope dilution HPLC-ESI+-HRMS/MS analysis on an Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Following method validation, N7-THBG was quantified in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells treated with micromolar concentrations of DEB and in DNA isolated from blood of smokers, nonsmokers, individuals participating in a smoking cessation program, and occupationally exposed workers. N7-THBG concentrations increased linearly from 31.4 ± 4.84 to 966.55 ± 128.05 adducts per 109 nucleotides in HT1080 cells treated with 1-100 μM DEB. N7-THBG amounts in leukocyte DNA of nonsmokers, smokers, and occupationally exposed workers were 7.08 ± 5.29, 8.20 ± 5.12, and 9.72 ± 3.80 adducts per 109 nucleotides, respectively, suggesting the presence of an endogenous or environmental source for this adduct. The availability of sensitive HPLC-ESI+-HRMS/MS methodology for BD-induced DNA adducts in humans will enable future population studies of interindividual and ethnic differences in BD bioactivation to DNA-reactive epoxides.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1486-1497
Number of pages12
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 21 2013

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